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Food is a basic human need, and we all depend on it to survive. However, the impact of food on the environment cannot be ignored. From the land used for agriculture to the packaging and transportation of food, every aspect of food production has an impact on the environment.

Land Use

One of the most significant impacts of food on the environment is land use. Agriculture is responsible for roughly 80% of global deforestation, which is a significant contributor to climate change. As forests are cleared for agricultural use, they release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and alter earth processes that keep ecosystems balanced. Land use change also alters the ability of land to sequester carbon, so it not only releases it but replaces the land with a less capable solution. Additionally, the use of pesticides and fertilizers in agriculture can lead to soil degradation and pollution, further impacting the environment.

Farm Use

Farm use is another critical aspect of food production that has an impact on the environment. In the U.S., 52% of land is used for agriculture. The use of large quantities of water for irrigation can lead to water scarcity and soil salinization. The excessive use of fertilizers can also cause nutrient runoff into waterways, leading to harmful algal blooms and fish kills. Furthermore, the use of livestock in farming produces significant amounts of greenhouse gases, particularly methane. Methane is over 25 times more potent than carbon dioxide making it a large contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. 


Transportation is another factor that contributes to the environmental impact of food production. Personal and freight transportation account for 28% of the total energy use in the U.S. For products that travel farther, there is a higher environmental impact, including for imported foods. This includes the transportation of food from farms to processing facilities, from processing facilities to distribution centers, and from distribution centers to grocery stores or restaurants.


Food packaging is often talked about as a way to be aware of the environmental impact of a food. Stores like Trader Joe’s have been criticized for their use of unsustainable and unnecessary packaging which they have since addressed, but it is one of the few steps and awarenesses we actually see. Single-use plastic has been under fire for its taxing resource consumption and contribution to plastic pollution which has led to “environmentally friendly” packaging. In order for environmentally-friendly packaging to actually be sustainable it must be disposed of properly which it often doesn’t due to lack of education or a lack of capability at local facilities.


Finally, the end of life of food products can also have an impact on the environment. One-third of all food in the US goes uneaten according to the EPA which contributes to greenhouse gas emissions when it decomposes in landfills and releases methane. The disposal of food waste in landfills also leads to the release of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Additionally, the disposal of food packaging, especially plastic, contributes to pollution and harms the environment.

What do we do now?

To reduce the impact of food on the environment, there are several steps that can be taken. For example, reducing food waste through better management practices, such as composting, can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, choosing locally sourced food can reduce transportation emissions and support local agriculture. Reducing the use of plastic packaging and choosing more sustainable options like refillable containers in bins at the grocery store or reusable bags can also help you become more sustainable. 

In conclusion, the impact of food on the environment is significant and cannot be ignored. From land use to transportation, packaging, and end of life, every aspect of food production has an impact on the environment. However, by taking steps to reduce waste, support local agriculture, and choose more sustainable options, we can help reduce the environmental impact of food production and ensure a more sustainable future.